TTIMES WORLD: Health News Report

Friday, November 17, 2017
Washington, DC, USA


 

Facts About Skin Cancer
You Need to Know

Fast Facts About Skin Cancer
•Unprotected skin can be damaged by the sun’s UV rays in as little as 15 minutes. Yet it can take as long as 12 hours for skin to show the full effect of sun exposure. Plan ahead so that when you’re having fun outdoors, you won’t forget to protect yourself from the sun.
•Even if it’s cool and cloudy, you still need protection. UV rays, not the temperature, do the damage.
•Tanned skin is damaged skin. Any change in the color of your skin after time outside indicates damage from UV rays.
•Anyone can get skin cancer, but some things put you at higher risk.
•Indoor tanning exposes users to UVA and UVB rays, which damage skin and can lead to cancer.
•A change somewhere on your skin is the most common sign of skin cancer. This could be a new growth, a sore that doesn’t heal, or a change in a mole.

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, and includes different types. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays causes most cases of melanoma, the deadliest kind of skin cancer. To lower your skin cancer risk, protect your skin from the sun and avoid indoor tanning.

National Center For Health Statistics
Leading Causes of Death in the US Shows a drop in Cancer Rate

The new data comes from the National Center for Health Statistics, which concludes that death rates rose across the board. (Though one bit of good news, cancer rates dropped.)

Last year Case and another researcher sounded the alarm about a surprising increase in mortality rates for white middle-aged Americans – thanks to a phenomenon poignantly referred to as the “diseases of despair” – overdoses, alcoholism and suicide. The new numbers point to the possibility that a wider group of Americans are becoming prone to major diseases.

Here are the top causes for 2015 according to the report, ranked high to low; numbers represent deaths per 100,000 of the standard population:

1. Heart disease: 168.5
2. Cancer: 158.5
3. Unintentional injuries: 43.2
4. Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 41.6
5. Stroke: 37.6
6. Alzheimer’s disease: 29.4
7. Diabetes: 21.3
8. Influenza and pneumonia: 15.2
9. Kidney disease: 13.4
10. Suicide: 13.3


Common Types Of Endoscopies
American Cancer Society

What Are the Types of Endoscopy?

Endoscopies fall into categories, based on the area of the body that they investigate. The American Cancer Society (ACS) lists the following types of endoscopies:

Arthroscopy is used to examine your joints. The scope is inserted through a small incision near the joint being examined.

Bronchoscopy is used to examine your lungs. The scope is inserted into your nose or mouth.

Colonoscopy is used to examine your colon. The scope is inserted through your anus.

Cystoscopy is used to examine your bladder. The scope is inserted through your urethra, which is the hole through which you urinate.

Enteroscopy is used to examine your small intestine. The scope is inserted through your mouth or anus.

Hysteroscopy is used for the examining the inside of your uterus. The scope is inserted through your vagina.

Laparoscopy is used to examine your abdominal or pelvic area. The scope is inserted through a small incision near the area that’s being examined.

Laryngoscopy is used to examine your voice box, or larynx. The scope is inserted through your mouth or nostril.

Mediastinoscopy is used to examine the area between the lungs called the “mediastinum.” The scope is inserted through an incision above your breastbone.

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is used to examine your esophagus and upper intestinal tract. The scope is inserted through your mouth.

Ureteroscopy is used to examine your ureter. The scope is inserted through your urethra.

Risk Factor For Skin Cancer
Things You Need to Know Before Summer Exposure

Risk factors
Exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet light is a risk factor for all types of skin cancer.6
Avoiding this risk factor alone could prevent more than 5 million cases of skin cancer every year.6
Research indicates that UV light from the sun and tanning beds can both cause melanoma and increase the risk of a benign mole progressing to melanoma.16
Increasing intermittent sun exposure in childhood and during one’s lifetime is associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma.17
Even one blistering sunburn during childhood or adolescence can nearly double a person's chance of developing melanoma.18
Experiencing five or more blistering sunburns between ages 15 and 20 increases one’s melanoma risk by 80 percent and nonmelanoma skin cancer risk by 68 percent.19
In 2010, new research found that daily sunscreen use cut the incidence of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, in half.20
People older than 65 may experience melanoma more frequently because of UV exposure they've received over the course of their lives.21
Higher melanoma rates among men may be due in part to lower rates of sun protection. 1,22
Exposure to tanning beds increases the risk of melanoma, especially in women 45 and younger.23-24
Researchers estimate that indoor tanning may cause upwards of 400,000 cases of skin cancer in the U.S. each year.25-26
In females 15 to 29 years old, the torso/trunk is the most common location for developing melanoma, which may be due to high-risk tanning behaviors.27
Higher melanoma rates among young females compared to young males may be due in part to widespread use of indoor tanning among females.1
Risk factors for all types of skin cancer include skin that burns easily; blond or red hair; a history of excessive sun exposure, including sunburns; tanning bed use; immune system-suppressing diseases or treatments; and a history of skin cancer.6
People with more than 50 moles, atypical moles, or large moles are at an increased risk of developing melanoma, as are those with light skin and freckles, and those with a personal or family history of melanoma.6, 28
Melanoma survivors have an approximately nine-fold increased risk of developing another melanoma compared to the general population.29
Men and women with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer are at a higher risk of developing melanoma than people without a nonmelanoma skin cancer history.30
Women with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer are at a higher risk of developing leukemia, breast, kidney and lung cancers, and men with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. 30
Prevention and detection
Because exposure to UV light is the most preventable risk factor for all skin cancers,6 the American Academy of Dermatology encourages everyone to protect their skin from the sun’s harmful UV rays by seeking shade, wearing protective clothing and using a sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 30 or higher.
Because severe sunburns during childhood may increase one’s risk of melanoma, children should be especially protected from the sun.6
People should not use tanning beds or sun lamps, which are sources of artificial UV radiation that may cause skin cancer.
Skin cancer warning signs include changes in size, shape or color of a mole or other skin lesion, the appearance of a new growth on the skin, or a sore that doesn't heal. If you notice any spots on your skin that are different from the others, or anything changing, itching or bleeding, the American Academy of Dermatology recommends that you make an appointment with a board-certified dermatologist.
The American Academy of Dermatology encourages everyone to perform skin self-exams to check for signs of skin cancer and get a skin exam from a doctor. A dermatologist can make individual recommendations as to how often a person needs these exams based on risk factors, including skin type, history of sun exposure and family history.
Individuals with a history of melanoma should have a full-body exam by a board-certified dermatologist at least annually and perform regular self-exams to check for new and changing moles.31

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