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Tuesday, April 23, 2024
Washington, DC, USA


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What Causes Dark Circles Under Your Eyes?
Dark circles under the eyes

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Dark circles under the lower eyelids are common in men and women. Often accompanied by bags, dark circles can make you appear older than you are. To make matters worse, they can be difficult to get rid of.

Though they can affect anyone, dark circles are most common in people who:

While fatigue may seem like the most logical explanation for this condition, there are a number of factors that can contribute to dark circles under the eyes. In most cases, they are no cause for concern and do not require medical attention. 


There are a number of contributing factors for dark circles. Some common causes of include:

Fatigue

Oversleeping, extreme fatigue, or just staying up a few hours past your normal bedtime can cause dark circles to form under your eyes. Sleep deprivation can cause your skin to become dull and pale, allowing for dark tissues and blood vessels beneath your skin to show.

Lack of sleep can also cause fluid to build underneath your eyes, causing them to appear puffy. As a result, the dark circles you see may actually be shadows cast by your puffy eyelids.

Age

Natural aging is another common cause of those dark circles beneath your eyes. As you get older, your skin becomes thinner. You also lose the fat and collagen needed to maintain your skin’s elasticity. As this occurs, the dark blood vessels beneath your skin become more visible causing the area below your eyes to darken.

Eye strain

Staring at your television or computer screen can cause significant strain on your eyes. This strain can cause blood vessels around your eyes to enlarge. As a result, the skin surrounding your eyes can darken.

Allergies

Allergic reactions and eye dryness can trigger dark circles. When you have an allergic reaction, your body release histamines as a response to harmful bacteria. Other than causing uncomfortable symptoms — including itchiness, redness, and puffy eyes — histamines also cause your blood vessels to dilate and become more visible beneath your skin.

Allergies can also increase your urge to rub and scratch the itchy skin around your eyes. These actions can worsen your symptoms, causing inflammation, swelling, and broken blood vessels. This can result in dark shadows beneath your eyes.

Dehydration

Dehydration is a common cause of dark circles under your eyes. When your body is not receiving the proper amount of water, the skin beneath your eyes begins to look dull and your eyes look sunken. This is due to their close proximity to the underlying bone.

Sun overexposure

Overexposure to the sun can cause your body to produce an excess of melanin, the pigment that provides your skin with color. Too much sun — particularly for your eyes — can cause pigmentation in the surrounding skin to darken.

Genetics

Family history also plays a part in developing dark circles under your eyes. It can be an inherited trait seen early in childhood, and may worsen as you age or slowly disappear. Predispositions to other medical conditions — such as thyroid disease — can also result in dark circles beneath your eyes.

At-Home treatments

Treatment for dark eye circles depends on the underlying cause. However, there are some home remedies that can help manage this condition. Some of the more common methods include:

  • Apply a cold compress. A cold compress can help reduce swelling and shrink dilated blood vessels. This can reduce the appearance of puffiness and help eliminate dark circles. Wrap a few ice cubes in a clean washcloth and apply to your eyes. You can also dampen a washcloth with cold water and apply it to the skin under your eyes for 20 minutes for the same effect. Repeat this process if the cloth becomes warm or if the ice melts.
  • Get extra sleep. Catching up on sleep can also help reduce the appearance of dark circles. Sleep deprivation can cause your skin to appear pale, making the dark circles more obvious. Allow yourself seven to eight hours of rest to prevent dark circles from appearing.
  • Elevate your head. While sleep deprivation can play a part in producing those dark bags under your eyes, sometimes it’s how you sleep. Elevate your head with a few pillows to prevent fluid from pooling under your eyes which can make them look puffy and swollen.
  • Soak with tea bags. Applying cold tea bags to your eyes can improve their appearance. Tea contains caffeine and antioxidants that can help stimulate blood circulation, shrink your blood vessels, and reduce liquid retention beneath your skin. Soak two black or green tea bags in hot water for five minutes. Let them chill in the refrigerator for 15 to 20 minutes. Once they’re cold, apply the teabags to your closed eyes for 10 to 20 minutes. After removing, rinse your eyes with cool water.
  • Conceal with makeup. While makeup and cosmetics do not cure dark eye circles, they can help to camouflage them. Concealers can cover dark marks so they blend in with your normal skin color. However, as with any topical treatment or makeup product, use proper care. Some products can cause your symptoms to worsen and may trigger an allergic reaction. If you begin to experience irregular symptoms from any topical treatment, stop use immediately and schedule a visit with your doctor.

Medical treatments

For a more effective and permanent solution, some medical treatments are available to reduce the appearance of dark circles. Some of the more common methods include:

  • chemical peels to reduce pigmentation
  • laser surgery to resurface the skin and enhance skin tightening
  • medical tattoos to inject pigment into thinning skin areas
  • tissue fillers to conceal blood vessels and melanin that are causing skin discoloration beneath your eyes.
  • fat removal to remove excess fat and skin, revealing a smoother and more even surface
  • surgical implants of fat or synthetic products

Before deciding on any cosmetic procedure, discuss your options with a doctor. Invasive medical treatments can be expensive, painful, and often require a long recovery time.

Coronavirus Update in Ghana
Ghana Justifies Buying Russian Sputnik Vaccine

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Dem come forward explain de reason after reports emerge from Norwegian newspaper, VG say Ghana go buy vaccines from one Sheik den another Norwegian who allegedly dey on wanted list of Police for money laundering.

But Ministry of Health say dema reason for buying de vaccine at $19 be sake of dem enter de market after attempts to secure products directly from Russia govment fail.

"Sake of no response from direct channels den global shortage of de vaccine, MoH, on 9th March, 2021 respond to one offer from office of Sheik Ahmed Dalmook Al Maktoum of United Arab Emirates for supply of 3.4 million doses of Sputnik V vaccines at unit cost of $19," Kwabena Boadu-Afari, Chief Director for Ministry of Health explain inside statement wey dem release.

Ghana order for 300,000 doses but Ministry of Health say dem no receive am yet, conditions dey for Ghana to opt out if dem no meet supply conditions.

So far Ghana vaccinate some 1,230,000 people out of which 376,000 get de full Covid-19 dosage representing 1.2% of de total population who receive full vaccine.

Although dis go cost govment $5.7 million, Ghanaian authorities say dem rather negotiate de unit price go down from proposed $25 to $19.

Dem explain say land transport, shipment, insurance, handling den special storage charges be reason for de price de supplier quote.

All dis deal happen at de time where Covid-19 shortage hit de world, despite dis global shortage dem still dey work to secure nore vaccines for Ghanaians.

Ghana so far don record some 93,362 COVID-19 cases out of which 787 die of de disease, meanwhile recoveries dey stand 92,362 across de country.

Arthritis and Disability
What You Can Do to Improve Life Style

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Arthritis Today
Time to Take Action!


Everyone knows someone with arthritis. It is a leading cause of disability, and causes pain, aching, stiffness, and swelling of the joints, but is not a normal part of aging. The most common types are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, and fibromyalgia. Arthritis costs at least $81 billion in direct medical costs annually. Many adults with arthritis are prescribed opioid medicines, yet other options for pain are safer. Physical activity can decrease pain and improve physical function by about 40% and may reduce healthcare costs. Still, 1 in 3 adults with arthritis are inactive. Adults with arthritis also can reduce their symptoms by participating in disease management education programs. Only 1 in 10 have taken part in these programs. Adults with arthritis are significantly more likely to attend an education program when recommended by a provider.

Healthcare providers can:

Urge patients with arthritis to be physically active and to strive for a healthier weight to ease joint pain.
Recommend patients attend proven educational programs about managing their condition.
Ask patients about any depression or anxiety, and offer care, treatment, and links to services.
Consult the guidelines of the American College of Rheumatology or other professional organizations for treatment options, including medicines.

Surgical Instrument Proper Storage
Makes a Big Difference in Surgical Infection Rates

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Storage.
Studies have suggested that wrapped surgical trays remained sterile for varying periods depending on the type of material used to wrap the trays. Safe storage times for sterile packs vary with the porosity of the wrapper and storage conditions (e.g., open versus closed cabinets). Heat-sealed, plastic peel-down pouches and wrapped packs sealed in 3-mil (3/1000 inch) polyethylene overwrap have been reported to be sterile for as long as 9 months after sterilization. The 3-mil polyethylene is applied after sterilization to extend the shelf life for infrequently used items967. Supplies wrapped in double-thickness muslin comprising four layers, or equivalent, remain sterile for at least 30 days. Any item that has been sterilized should not be used after the expiration date has been exceeded or if the sterilized package is wet, torn, or punctured.

Although some hospitals continue to date every sterilized product and use the time-related shelf-life practice, many hospitals have switched to an event-related shelf-life practice. This latter practice recognizes that the product should remain sterile until some event causes the item to become contaminated (e.g., tear in packaging, packaging becomes wet, seal is broken)968. Event-related factors that contribute to the contamination of a product include bioburden (i.e., the amount of contamination in the environment), air movement, traffic, location, humidity, insects, vermin, flooding, storage area space, open/closed shelving, temperature, and the properties of the wrap material966, 969. There are data that support the event-related shelf-life practice970-972. One study examined the effect of time on the sterile integrity of paper envelopes, peel pouches, and nylon sleeves. The most important finding was the absence of a trend toward an increased rate of contamination over time for any pack when placed in covered storage971. Another evaluated the effectiveness of event-related outdating by microbiologically testing sterilized items. During the 2-year study period, all of the items tested were sterile972. Thus, contamination of a sterile item is event-related and the probability of contamination increases with increased handling973.

Following the sterilization process, medical and surgical devices must be handled using aseptic technique in order to prevent contamination. Sterile supplies should be stored far enough from the floor (8 to 10 inches), the ceiling (5 inches unless near a sprinkler head [18 inches from sprinkler head]), and the outside walls (2 inches) to allow for adequate air circulation, ease of cleaning, and compliance with local fire codes (e.g., supplies must be at least 18 inches from sprinkler heads). Medical and surgical supplies should not be stored under sinks or in other locations where they can become wet. Sterile items that become wet are considered contaminated because moisture brings with it microorganisms from the air and surfaces. Closed or covered cabinets are ideal but open shelving may be used for storage. Any package that has fallen or been dropped on the floor must be inspected for damage to the packaging and contents (if the items are breakable). If the package is heat-sealed in impervious plastic and the seal is still intact, the package should be considered not contaminated. If undamaged, items packaged in plastic need not be reprocessed.

Reducing Hospital Blood Borne Infections
Surgical Central Lines

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A central line is a tube that a doctor usually places
in a large vein of a patient’s neck or chest to give
important medical treatment. When not put in
correctly or kept clean, central lines can become
a freeway for germs to enter the body and cause
serious bloodstream infections. These infections
can be deadly. Of patients who get a bloodstream
infection from having a central line, up to 1 in 4 die.
Bloodstream infections in patients with central
lines are largely preventable when healthcare
providers use CDC-recommended infection control
steps. Medical professionals have reduced
these infections in hospital intensive care unit
(ICU) patients by 58% since 2001. Even so, many
still occur in ICUs, in other parts of hospitals,
and in outpatient care locations. In 2008,
about 37,000 bloodstream infections occurred
in hemodialysis* outpatients with central lines.

American Need More Physical Activities
Less Than Half Get The Needed Physical Activities

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Americans need more physical activity

Less than half of all adults get the recommended amount of physical activity.

Adults need at least 2 and 1/2 hours (150 minutes) a week of aerobic physical activity. This should be at a moderate level, such as a fast-paced walk for no less than 10 minutes at a time.
Women and older adults are not as likely to get the recommended level of weekly physical activity.
Inactive adults have higher risk for early death, heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers.
Regular physical activity helps people get and keep a healthy weight.
Walkable communities result in more physical activity.
More people are walking, but just how many depends on where they live, their health, and their age.

The West and Northeast regions have the highest percentage of adults who walk in the country, but the South showed the largest percent increase of adults who walk compared to the other regions.
More adults with arthritis or high blood pressure are now walking, but not those with type 2 diabetes.
Walking increased among adults 65 or older, but less than in other age groups.
People need safe, convenient places to walk.

People are more likely to walk and move about more when they feel protected from traffic and safe from crime and hazards.
Maintaining surfaces can keep people who walk from falling and getting hurt. This also helps wheelchairs and strollers and is safer for people with poor vision.
People need to know where places to walk in their communities exist that are safe and convenient.
Walking routes in and near neighborhoods encourage people to walk to stops for buses, trains, and trolleys.

Tooth Decay Among Americans
Steps To Improvements

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The Problem
One in five people have untreated tooth decay which can lead to pain and infection and ultimately to problems speaking, eating, working, and playing. When tooth decay in very young children requires extensive treatment under general anesthesia in a hospital operating room, costs can increase by thousands of dollars. Timely delivery of fluorides and dental sealants to at-risk people reduces tooth decay and treatment costs. Residence in a fluoridated community also can reduce the percentage of young children receiving dental treatment in a hospital operating room.3

Total U.S. dental expenditures for children 0 to 21 years in 2012 exceeded $25 billion dollars. 830,000 emergency room visits were due to preventable dental conditions. Water fluoridation can yield an annual return on investment of between $5 and $32 for every $1 spent depending on community size. Delivering sealants to high-risk children saves Medicaid $6 per tooth sealed over a 4-year period.

What Can Be Done?
Fluoride varnish re-mineralizes weakened tooth enamel and prevents almost 40 percent of cavities in primary teeth.6 Experts recommend that all infants and children receive fluoride varnish starting when the first tooth erupts.7,8 Integrating preventive dental care into well child visits can magnify the community impact of the intervention by increasing the number of children receiving fluoride varnish.

Dental sealants provide a physical barrier on the chewing surfaces of permanent molars and prevent over 80 percent of cavities 2 years after placement.9 Experts recommend sealant programs administered through schools to increase the number of children who receive sealants. These programs typically target schools attended by a large number of children at high risk for tooth decay. Studies indicate that delivering sealants to high-risk children can offer Medicaid a positive return on investment at 2 years.10
Community water fluoridation is a safe and effective way to provide optimal levels of fluoride to prevent tooth decay. Experts recommend community water fluoridation to reduce tooth decay among children and adults. Children living in communities initiating water fluoridation have 2.25 fewer decayed teeth11 and lower treatment costs3,12,13 than similar children living in non-fluoridated communities. For the general population, there is an estimated annual return on investment for fluoridated communities between $5 and $32 per person depending on the size of the community.14

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